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篇名 「教育4.0」的意涵暨「學校經營」的進升
並列篇名 Education 4.0 and Advancing School Management
作者 鄭崇趁(Chung-Chen Cheng)
中文摘要 工業4.0彩繪了人類新文明與文化,文明具有「進升性」(菁英知識分子優先帶動),文化則具有「含容性」(如工業雖然進升至4.0,然一個國家中的人民生活,同時活在1.0、2.0、3.0及4.0階段的都有,只是比率不同而已,愈文明的國家,進升到3.0及4.0的比率較高)。教育事業是推進人類新文明與文化的核心事業,教育事業也有部分的「經營項目」開始使用4.0的「概念」與「標準」來實踐教育工作。例如:臺北市「優質學校評選」,因為是採用第四次指標版本,就稱之為「優質學校4.0」;臺北教育大學教育政策與管理博士班的招生海報,揭示「邁向教育博士2.0」。又如:筆者帶領博士班學生實務參訪兩個辦學績優學校,將課程主題定名為「體驗學習」,並依學習層次深淺劃定1.0到4.0的核心任務,要求學生參照學習,成果價值豐厚圓滿。筆者設定的「體驗學習1.0」是「看」(表象成果);「體驗學習2.0」是「思」(深層結構);「體驗學習3.0」是「探」(元素組件);「體驗學習4.0」是「究」(進升力點)。這些案例都從「微觀」的教育事務,參照「工業1.0至4.0」的「進升」概念,企圖幫助「學校經營」找到明確的方向目標以及更精確的「著力點」。本文尋根探源,優先探討工業4.0的發展、工業4.0對教育事業發展的啟示,然後再以「鉅觀」的教育視角(如學校教育歷史及學生學習成效)詮釋教育4.0的可能意涵。接續再以「微觀」的個別教育議題(如課程教學、校長領導、優質學校、資源統整、教育計畫、體驗學習、自造者教育等)討論4.0的「進升版本」,俾能提供學校經營者有較明確的辦學「方向」及經營的「著力點」。
英文摘要 Industrialization 4.0 brings new era of civilization and culture. Civilization contains advancing progresses, and culture possesses the nature of inclusion. Education is the one of the core professions for lifting civilization and culture. Some education processes, or units apply the concept and the standard of 4.0 to fulfill the educational projects. Take `Taipei Excellent School Evaluation’ as an example, its evaluating indicators has been revised fourth times; therefore, once a school is evaluated as an excellent school, we could call it excellent school 4.0. Also the poster of National Taipei University of Education for recruiting educational doctoral degree, it lists the progress of educational Ph.D. from 1.0 to 2.0. Then, taking my own experiences of applying the progressive concept of 1.0 to 4.0 as another example. I designed an experiential learning course for investigating excellent school from 1.0 to 4.0. Each level contains different yet progressive learning purpose. Experiential learning course 1.0 aims to view the outer achievements; course 2.0 involves to think about their inner structures; course 3.0 prefers to analyze their factors and elements; and course 4.0 encourages to research improving or uplifting points. These cases are micro-educational tasks, which are referred to the concept of progressive and advancing from industrialization 1.0 to 4.0. Appropriating this concept aims to assist principals for fi nding clear direction and precise uplifting point of school management. In this paper, I reviewed the development of industrialization 4.0 fi rst. Then, I tried to show how this inspiration refl ects on educational professions. Third, I combined the macro aspect of education, such as the history of schoolbased education and learners’ learning achievements, to interpret the potential of education 4.0. Then I link to several micro educational issues, such as curriculum design, principal-ship, excellent school evaluation, educational projects, experiential learning and Maker education etc., to discuss their possible 4.0 progresses. By doing so, I eager to provide an explicit guide and an effective uplifting point for school principal.
頁次 053-068
關鍵詞 工業4.0 教育4.0 創客教育 智慧教育 學校經營 industrialization 4.0 education 4.0 Maker education intellectual education school management
卷期 288
日期 201804
刊名 教育研究月刊
出版單位 高等教育出版公司
DOI 10.3966/168063602018040288005