體驗區

免費試讀請先加入會員並下載瀏覽軟體

詳目顯示
回簡目顯示 下ㄧ筆         閱讀
篇名 「一個簡單生活的地方」:瑞克利夫(William Ratcliffe, 1870-1955)筆下的田園城市
並列篇名 “A Simple Life Place”: William Ratcliffe’s Representation of the Garden City
作者 張琳(Chang, Lin)
中文摘要 田園城市(The Garden City)是都市史上的一項重大發明,由英國社會改革家霍華德(Sir Ebenezer Howard, 1850-1928)所提出,以農業經濟打造低密度、多綠地的新型城市,用意是解決工業化之後,大城市的擁擠汙染和鄉間的日益衰退,這兩方面的問題。人類歷史上首座田園城市建立於1903 年,位在倫敦北方,名叫「列奇沃斯田園城市」(Letchworth Garden City)。在藝術史上,目前只有前衛繪畫派郭爾(Spencer Gore, 1878-1914)所畫的列奇沃斯田園城市風景畫,有比較完整的討論。但是根據筆者蒐集,發現描繪列奇沃斯田園城市的畫作,數量上最多(達六十多幅,郭爾為二十多幅)、作畫時間最長者(近三十年內都有畫作問世;而郭爾只有一個夏天訪問該城),應屬當地畫家威廉.瑞克利夫(William Ratcliffe, 1870-1955)。相較於郭爾以「後印象派」筆觸來表現,加入同個前衛畫派的瑞克利夫,畫面就顯得平淡、簡單許多。本文以多筆親自蒐集的原文史料為基礎,進行詳細的圖像分析、詮釋瑞克利夫作品的圖像意義。期間並與郭爾的畫作交相比較討論。筆者將論證瑞克利夫以恬淡為主的風格,反而是當地風俗民情更佳的再現。另外,「田園城市」的概念在國內社會上時有所聞,反映人們亦期待都市生活空間有所改善、更加綠化,如同一座「田/花園城市」。因此本文以史上首座田園城市的風景圖像為研究對象,對於國內讀者具參考價值。還有,當代藝術創作者不乏以城市景觀和個人生活空間,作為創作主題。故本文對於瑞克利夫作品的分析討論,亦可提供讀者思考。
英文摘要 The “Garden City” is an important concept in Urban History. Proposed by British social reformer Sir Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928), and with an economy based on agriculture, it aimed to create a less populated city with more greenery, thus solving at the same time the problems of polluted and crowded cities on the one hand, and the depopulated countryside on the other. The world’s first Garden City was built in Letchworth, north of London, in 1903. In Art History, only avant-garde artist Spencer Gore’s (1878-1914) paintings of Letchworth Garden City have received much attention. However, local artist William Whitehead Ratcliffe (1870-1955) produced the most paintings of Letchworth Garden City (more than 60, while Gore produced 20 or so) over the longest span of time (almost 30 years, whereas Gore spent only one summer). Compared to Gore, who painted with Post-Impressionist brushstrokes, Ratcliffe who was also a member of the avant-garde group, tended to paint simpler compositions using lighter colors. Based on first-hand archive materials, this paper will conduct a detailed visual analysis and interpretation of Ratcliffe’s paintings. I will also compare Gore’s and Ratcliffe’s works. I will argue that Ratcliffe’s simpler style may constitute a better representation of the local life and people of Letchworth Garden City. Besides these considerations, the idea of a garden city is often heard in contemporary Taiwan. This shows that we expect our urban environment to improve and to have more greenery, like a garden city. Therefore, this paper, focusing on the landscape imagery of the world’s first Garden City, is of interest to Taiwanese readers. Additionally, many contemporary artists use cityscape and private space as the subject-matter for their artistic creations. Following this, this paper, which analyzes and discusses Ratcliffe’ s works, may also provide some food for thought.
頁次 001-043
關鍵詞 瑞克利夫 田園城市 列奇沃斯 郭爾 卡姆登小鎮派 William Ratcliffe Garden City Letchworth Spencer Gore the Camden Town Group
卷期 38
日期 202001
刊名 藝術評論
出版單位 國立臺北藝術大學
DOI 10.3966/101562402020010038001